National Flag : The National Flag is the horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the center of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath. Ratio of the width of the flag to its length is 2:3.
Design of the national flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947. Its design is that
National Emblem : The National Emblem of India is derived from the time of the Emperor Ashoka. The emblem is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Lion Capital was erected in the third century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation to the four quarters of the universe.
There are four lions standing back to back, mounted, on an abacus with the frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on the left and the outlines of the other wheel on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad meaning. Truth Alone Triumphs inscribed below in Devanagari Script.
National Anthem : The Jana Gana Mana is the national Anthem of India, composed by Rabindranath Tagore. It was officially adopted by the constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950. It was first sung on December 27, 1911 at the Calcutta (now Kolkata) session of the Indian National Congress. Playing time of the full version of national anthem is approximately 52 seconds. A short version consisting of the first and the last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds) is also played on certain occasions. The whole song consists of five stanzas.
National Song: Bankim Chandra Chatterji’s composed song “Vande Mataram” was adopted as the National Song. It has an equal status with “Jana Gana Mana“. It was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
National Animal: Tiger is the National Animal of India. It is symbol of India’s wildlife wealth. The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris, is a striped animal. The combination of grace, strength and agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India.
National Bird: The Peacock, Pavo cristatus, is the national bird of India. Emblematic of qualities such as beauty grace, pride. It is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck.
National Sport: Hockey is the national game of India. It is played all across India. Indian Hockey Federation(IHF) was formed on the 7th November, 1925 at Gwalior. In Olympics, India has won the hockey title a maximum of 8 times.
National Fruit: Mango is the national fruit of India. Described as the “Food of the Gods”, in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India.
National Flower: Lotus botanically known as the Nelumbo Nucifera is the national flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of the ancient India and has been auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.
National Tree: Banyan Tree is the National Tree of India. This huge tree towers over its neighbours and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees. It is the focal point of village life.
National River: Ganga is the national river of India. It is one of the major river in Indian sub-continent. The Ganges is mentioned in the Rig-Veda, the earliest of the Hindu scriptures. Some of the most important Hindu festivals and religious worship happens on the banks of the Ganga river.
National Calender: National Calender based on Saka Era with worlds “Chaitra Pratipada” as its first month and the first day of a normal year of 365 days was adopted from March 22, 1957 along with Gregorian Calender for the official purposes. Dates of the national calendar, 1 ‘Chaitra’ falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.
National Days: 26th January (Republic Day)
15th August (Independence Day)